parvovirus in humans

It is a non-enveloped, icosahedralvirus that contains a single-stranded linear DNA genome of approximately 5,600 base pairs in length. [33] Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) therapy has been a popular alternative because doctors can administer it without stopping chemotherapy drugs like MEL-ASCT. Human parvovirus B19 is a small non-enveloped virus that contains single-stranded DNA. [citation needed] The monoclonal antibody against the CD20 protein has been shown to cause acute hepatitis,[36] neutropenia via parvovirus B19 reactivations,[37] and even persistent parvovirus B19 infection. [22] The following symptoms are characteristic: Teenagers or young adults may develop the so-called "Papular Purpuric Gloves and Socks Syndrome". Parvovirus is a mild infection in humans, predominantly affecting children and to a lesser extent in adults. Parvovirus infection in humans is most common in children, and especially in the winter and spring months. Viral human parvovirus is a common childhood ailment that is passed strictly by other humans. Parvovirus B19 clearance from peripheral blood after acute infection. This infection is sometimes complicated by severe aplastic anemia caused by lysis of early erythroid precursors. The associated bright red rash of the cheeks gives it the nickname "slapped cheek syndrome". Three genotypes (with subtypes) have been recognised.[12]. [19] Individuals with B19 IgG antibodies are generally considered immune to recurrent infection, but reinfection is possible in a minority of cases. Possibly up to 15% of all new cases of arthritis are due to parvovirus, and a history of recent contact with a patient and positive serology generally confirms the diagnosis. The major clinical manifestations that can occur with parvovirus B19 infection include: There is often a rash on the face which is bright red. [5][6] It gained the B19 name because it was discovered in well B19 of a large series of microtiter plates. It may increase maternal anxiety and fear without proven benefit. [3] The name is derived from Latin, parvum meaning small, reflecting the fact that B19 ranks among the smallest DNA viruses. Once infected, patients usually develop the illness after an incubation period of four to fourteen days. See more. [citation needed] Knowledge of her status would allow the mother to avoid contact with individuals suspected or known to have an ongoing infection, however, at the present time, antenatal testing for immunity is not recommended, since there is no good means to prevent the infection, there is no specific therapy and there are no vaccines available. Most children have encountered the virus by their teenage years, but those who escape infection as children are susceptible as adults. Parvovirus B19—which causes fifth disease—spreads through respiratory secretions, such as saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus, when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Human parvovirus B19 infections are common. Knowing the symptoms of parvovirus may help you to take swift action and pursue the correct treatment for you dog. [16] The secondary attack risk for exposed household persons is about 50%, and about half of that for classroom contacts.[5][17]. Erythroviruses belong to the Parvoviridae family of small DNA viruses. Normal transmission is presumably by the respiratory route via droplet aerosol. [13] This rate is similar to that of other single stranded DNA viruses. N Engl J Med. While some diseases are capable of crossing over from one species to another and causing infection, the parvovirus is not one of them. No, humans cannot detect parvo by smelling feces or vomit. Symptoms begin some six days after exposure (between 4 and 28 days, with the average being 16 to 17 days[18]) and last about a week. About 60 per cent of people have had slapped cheek syndrome by the age of 30. 1. doi:10.2217/fvl.14.103, Mühlemann B, Margaryan A, Damgaard PB, Allentoft ME, Vinner L, Hansen AJ, Weber A, Bazaliiskii VI, Molak M, Arneborg J, Bogdanowicz W, Falys C, Sablin M, Smrčka V, Sten S, Tashbaeva K, Lynnerup N, Sikora M, Smith DJ, Fouchier RAM, Drosten C, Sjögren KG, Kristiansen K, Willerslev E, Jones TC (2018) Ancient human parvovirus B19 in Eurasia reveals its long-term association with humans. 1989;321:485–91. It is the classic cause of the childhood rash called fifth disease or erythema infectiosum, or "slapped cheek syndrome". [32], At the moment, there are no treatments that directly target parvovirus B19 virus. There is some evidence that intrauterine parvovirus B19 infection leads to developmental abnormalities in childhood. In children, it is often called Fifth’s Disease or erythema infectiosum. [25], Parvovirus B19 is a cause of chronic anemia in individuals who have AIDS. Human parvovirus B19 is a common childhood virus. [26], Arthralgias and arthritis are commonly reported in association with parvovirus B19 infection in adults whereas erythema infectiosum is the main symptom observed in children. [8] It is a non-enveloped, icosahedral virus that contains a single-stranded linear DNA genome of approximately 5,600 base pairs in length. There is no vaccine available for human parvovirus B19,[22] though attempts have been made to develop one. This form of parvovirus is the most common form of the dog parvo virus. The risk of fetal loss is about 10% if infection occurs before pregnancy week 20 (especially between weeks 14 and 20), but minimal after then. [5][22], Although most patients have a decrease of erythropoiesis (production of red blood cells) during parvovirus infection, it is most dangerous in patients with pre-existing bone marrow stress, for example sickle cell anemia or hereditary spherocytosis,[29][30] and are therefore heavily dependent on erythropoiesis due to the reduced lifespan of the red cells. The most common clinical encounter with parvovirus B19 is as the causative agent of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). The most recent common ancestor of the extant strains has been dated to about 12,600 years ago. In some cases, however, infection is associated with sufficiently severe complications that treatment is indicated and may be lifesaving. Does parvo have a smell? [38] However, it is important to note that IVIG therapy is not perfect as 34% of treated patients will have a relapse after 4 months. Group one is named Parvovirinae and causes infection in vertebrate e.g. She published her first book, "Breaking up without Breaking Down," in 2007 and specializes in a variety of topics including, but not limited to, relationships and issues in education. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin usually resolves the anemia although relapse can occur. Parvovirus is often deadly, though with early detection and aggressive treatment it is very possible that your dog will survive. It is frequently overlooked. She earned a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology from Florida International University. Future Virol. 2015;10(2):155–167. There are usually cold symptoms and a low grade fever. One type, parvovirus B19, infects only humans. Parvovirus infection is a common and highly contagious childhood ailment — sometimes called slapped-cheek disease because of the distinctive face rash that develops. [20] About half of adults are B19-immune due to a past infection. B19 virus is most known for causing disease in the pediatric population; however, it can also affect adults. Parvovirus B19 which causes fifth disease in humans, is a member of species Primate erythroparvovirus 1 in the genus Erythroparvovirus.It infects red blood cell precursors and was the first parvovirus shown to cause human disease. Human Role in Spreading the Canine Parvovirus Although humans cannot catch the parvovirus from dogs, they can and often do play a major role in spreading the disease in the dog population. human, while group two is called the Densovirinae, which infects invertebrates e.g. washing your hands often with soap and water covering your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze not touching your eyes, nose, or mouth avoiding close contact with people who are sick staying home when you are sick. Symptoms during the early stages of infection may include: Nasal discharge (runny nose) Fever Headache Flu-like symptoms Reddish or pink rash on the face Joint pain … Antibodies are cells that your immune system produces in response to an infection. As the fever breaks, a red rash forms on the cheeks, with relative pallor around the mouth ("slapped cheek rash"), sparing the nasolabial folds, forehead, and mouth. [9] The infectious particles may contain either positive or negative strands of DNA. Parvovirus B19 is a DNA virus with moderate rates of transmission from individuals who may be asymptomatic. [27] In adults (and perhaps some children), parvovirus B19 can lead to a seronegative arthritis which is usually easily controlled with analgesics. About half of adults are immune to parvovirus infection, most likely because of a previous, unnoticed childhood infection. Parvovirus B19 causes prolonged epidemics of erythema infectiosum, particularly in primary school-aged children. [21] Outbreaks can arise especially in nurseries and schools. Pregnant women are not routinely screened for past parvovirus B19 infection as there … Infection causes clinically significant anaemia in … Human parvovirus B19: a mechanistic overview of infection and DNA replication. Parvovirus infection: Infection with one of a family of small single-stranded DNA viruses. Humans can suffer from Parvovirus just like canines can. About the Author Kristina de la Cal is a full-time teacher who has been freelance writing since 1991. Human parvovirus B19 infection among hospital staff members after contact with infected patients. If your dog has any of the symptoms I have mentioned you should contact your local veterinary clinic right away. Whether or not they will depends on the dog’s overall health and how early she receives treatment and begins a recovery plan.. A standard treatment plan will include fluids, antibiotics, anti-nausea medicines, antacids, probiotics, vitamins, and electrolyte supplement. Infections caused by human parvovirus B19 can result in a wide spectrum of manifestations, which are usually influenced by the patient's immunologic and hematologic status. A person cannot catch parvovirus B19 from a dog or cat. [14] In humans the P antigen (also known as globoside) is the cellular receptor for parvovirus B19 virus that causes erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) in children. Routine screening of the antenatal sample would enable the pregnant mother to determine the risk of infection. Parvovirus B19 only infects humans and cannot be transmitted to or from animals. [39], Luo Y, Qiu J. This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 18:16. It is so named because it was the fifth most common cause of a pink-red infection associated rash to be described by physicians (many of the others, such as measles and rubella, are rare now).[24]. The infectious particles may contain either positive or negative strands of DNA. [5][7], Erythroviruses belong to the Parvoviridae family of small DNA viruses. [23], Fifth disease or erythema infectiosum is only one of several expressions of parvovirus B19. Up to 50 per cent of susceptible household contacts and 10–60 per cent of childcare or school … Although humans cannot catch the parvovirus from dogs, they can and often do play a major role in spreading the disease in the dog population. The nucleotide substitution rate for total coding DNA has been estimated to be 1.03 (0.6-1.27) x 10−4 substitutions/site/year. Typically joint symptoms last 1–3 weeks, but in 10–20% of those affected, it may last weeks to months. The canine parvovirus is an extremely hardy disease that can live in a dormant but infectious state in the environment for one year or longer. [34] Also, the treatment's side effects are rare as only 4 out of 133 patients had complications (2 had acute kidney injury and 2 had pulmonary edema) even though 69 of the patients had organ transplants and 39 of them were HIV positive. There are also animal parvoviruses, but they do not infect humans. The icosahedral capsid consists of 60 capsomeres, consisting of two structural proteins, VP1 (83 kDa) and VP2 (58 kDa), which are identical except for 227 amino acids at the amino-terminal of the VP1-protein, the so-called VP1-uni… It causes mild rash on cheek of the affected person. A significant increase in the number of cases is seen every three to four years; the last epidemic year was 1998. [15] Three genotypes—1, 2 and 3 -- are recognised. starfish. A recombination between types 1 and 3 gave rise to genotype 2 between 5,000 and 6,800 years ago. Infected patients with normal immune systems are contagious before becoming symptomatic, but probably not after. The parvovirus is subtype in two groups. The typical incubation period for parvo is 3-6 days, while some have reported up to 2 weeks. Once the dog has been exposed to the virus, it replicates in the lymphoid tissue in the throat, and then infects the bloodstream and attacks cells of the lining of the digestive tract, lymph nodes and bone marrow. It is responsible for several clinical syndromes. The Human Parvovirus B19 is not the same Parvovirus that vets may be concerned about in pets, especially dogs, and it cannot be passed from humans to animals or vice versa. Parvovirus B19 most commonly causes fifth disease, a mild rash illness that usually affects children. Parvovirus infection has also been known as fifth disease because, historically, it was one of five common childhood illnesses characterized by a rash.In most children, parvoviru… It most commonly occurs in children aged between 3-15 years. Parvovirus B19 is the only virus to affect humans. [35] This is a large improvement over administering rituximab. In rare cases, some of these symptoms can persist for a long time. VP2 codons were found to be under purifying selection. Parvovirus definition, a highly contagious, often fatal viral disease of dogs, characterized by vomiting, severe diarrhea, and depression and accompanied by high fever and loss of appetite. This infection is not a notifiable disease. It presents as a fever and a flat red skin rash on the face “slapped cheeks” and occasionally on the palms and soles of the feet. This diversifying selection is consistent with persistent infection as this part of the VP1 protein contains epitopes recognised by the immnune system. Human Role in Spreading the Canine Parvovirus. [10] At each end of the DNA molecule there are palindromic sequences which form "hairpin" loops. VP1-proteins are incorporated into the capsid structure in a non-stoichiometrical relation (based on antibody-binding analysis and X-ray structural analysis the VP1-unique region is assumed to be exposed at the surface of the virus particle. However, the type of virus causing it as well as symptoms are different. In contrast VP1 codons in the unique part of the gene were found to be under diversifying selection. [4][5], The virus was discovered by chance in 1975 by Australian virologist Yvonne Cossart. It causes Fifth disease, a minor childhood disease which is similar to the measles. 3. You are most contagious when it seems like you have “just a fever and/or cold” and before you get the rash or joint pain and swelling. highly contagious and very serious viral infection that attacks a dog’s immune system The occurrence of arthralgia coincides with the initial detection of circulating IgM- and IgG-antibodies against the viral structural proteins VP1 and VP2. Persistence of human parvovirus B 19 in human tissues. "Lace-like, (reticular)" red rash on trunk or extremities then follows the facial rash. The risk to the fetus will be reduced with correct diagnosis of the anemia (by ultrasound scans) and treatment (by blood transfusions). [28] Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience arthritis after parvovirus infection. [citation needed]. The canine parvovirus is an extremely hardy disease that can live in a dormant but infectious state in the environment for one year or longer. Most infections occur in children between 5 and 15. Parvo Treatment – FAQ’s. The best approach would be to recommend all pregnant women to avoid contact with children with current symptoms of infection, as described above. People claim that parvo diarrhea has a certain smell, but it’s likely from the blood which can be in a dog’s stool for many reasons. Young NS, Brown KE. [19] This arthritis does not progress to other forms of arthritis. Parvovirus B19 is a virus common in school age children particularly at this time of year. People who are at risk of severe parvovirus complications might benefit from blood tests that can help determine if they're immune to parvovirus or if they've recently become infected. Parvovirus is an extremely common infection. People who have had slapped … Cat and dog parvoviruses do not infect humans. Since the infection is highly contagious and can also be spread in humans, it is important to know how this virus spreads and how to stop it. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, "Seroepidemiology of human bocavirus defined using recombinant virus-like particles", "Global co-existence of two evolutionary lineages of parvovirus B19 1a, different in genome-wide synonymous positions", "Substitution rate and natural selection in parvovirus B19", "Advances in the biology, diagnosis and host-pathogen interactions of parvovirus B19", "Current epidemiological aspects of human parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy and childhood in the western part of Germany", "Clinical presentations of parvovirus B19 infection", "Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant parvovirus B19 vaccine formulated with MF59C.1", "Parvovirus B19 infection in human pregnancy", "Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy for Pure Red Cell Aplasia Related to Human Parvovirus B19 Infection: A Retrospective Study of 10 Patients and Review of the Literature", Papular purpuric gloves and socks syndrome, Asymmetric periflexural exanthem of childhood, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Parvovirus_B19&oldid=998509092, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Electron micrograph of Parvoviruses in blood. Around 30–40 per cent of pregnant women are not immune and are therefore at risk. The icosahedral capsid consists of 60 capsomeres, consisting of two structural proteins, VP1 (83 kDa) and VP2 (58 kDa), which are identical except for 227 amino acids at the amino-terminal of the VP1-protein, the so-called VP1-unique region. A human variant of the parvovirus does exist but its transmission is only possible from one human to another just like the canine parvovirus is only transmittable between animals in the canine family. If parvovirus is confirmed and treatment started right away there is a 80% survival rate. Parvovirus B19 causes an infection in humans only. Outbreaks occur during winter and spring, with epidemics occurring every 3–4 years. They are usually mild or asymptomatic, and do not require treatment. Parvovirus B19 infection may affect the development of arthritis. It is only contagious before the show of symptoms, so it cannot be entirely prevented from spreading within any given population. (Parvovirus means small virus, from the Latin parvus, small.) The disease commences with high fever and malaise, when the virus is most abundant in the bloodstream, and patients are usually no longer infectious once the characteristic rash of this disease has appeared. [5][22], Parvovirus infection in pregnant women is associated with hydrops fetalis due to severe fetal anemia, sometimes leading to miscarriage or stillbirth. Acetaminophen or ibuprofen is effective for treating fever in patients with parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection. Like other nonenveloped DNA viruses, pathogenicity of parvovirus B19 involves binding to host cell receptors, internalization, translocation of the genome to the host nucleus, DNA replication, RNA transcription, assembly of capsids and packaging of the genome, and finally cell lysis with release of the mature virions. There are several types of parvovirus but most of them affect animals. The virus is primarily spread by infected respiratory droplets; blood-borne transmission, however, has been reported. [35], As of 2017, no approved human vaccine existed against parvovirus B19. Parvovirus is classified as a ss-DNA viruses made up of single stranded DNA. The parvovirus infection may trigger an inflammatory reaction in AIDS patients who have just begun antiretroviral therapy. The treatment of parvovirus usually consists of: Treatment for parvovirus c… Primate erythroparvovirus 1, generally referred to as B19 virus, parvovirus B19[1] or sometimes erythrovirus B19,[2] was the first (and until 2005 the only) known human virus in the family Parvoviridae, genus Erythroparvovirus; it measures only 23–26 nm in diameter. How common is it? [22][31] This is due to a combination of hemolysis of the red blood cells, as well as the virus directly negatively affecting the red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. [5] Any age may be affected, although it is most common in children aged six to ten years. It is treated with blood transfusion. This is termed "aplastic crisis" (also called reticulocytopenia). Widely known as Parvovirus disease, Canine Parvovirus type 2 (CPV/CPV2) is an infection caused by Parvovirus in dogs. Although rare, the consequences of fetal hydrops and death are devastating and any suspected exposure must be investigated so that appropriate fetal monitoring and treatment may be arranged. The hairpin at the 3' end serves as a primer for the DNA polymerase. It is estimated that around 50% of young men and women have antibodies against B19V, determined via serology tests[1]. Parvovirus is usually diagnosed through a blood test for antibodies to the virus. Infection in adults usually only involves the reticular rash, with multiple joint pain predominating. Exacerbation of rash by sunlight, heat, stress. Even though Canine Parvovirus is highly contagious and often deadly, dogs can and do survive parvo. Human parvovirus infection occurs worldwide and is a common childhood disease. 50;:307-316. In a healthy immune system, the human parvovirus is relatively mild and brief. Parvovirus definition is - any of a family (Parvoviridae) of single-stranded DNA viruses that include the causative agents of fifth disease in humans, panleukopenia in cats, and parvovirus in dogs. The extant strains has been reported erythema infectiosum is often deadly, though with early detection aggressive. Protein contains epitopes recognised by the respiratory route via droplet aerosol is highly contagious and deadly! Densovirinae, which infects invertebrates e.g the antenatal sample would enable the pregnant mother to determine the risk infection! 3-15 years a dog 's intestinal tract 9 ] the infectious particles may contain either positive negative... Progress to other forms of arthritis not infect humans parvoviruses, but in 10–20 of! Subtypes ) have been made to develop one symptoms of infection, has been estimated to be diversifying... [ 25 ], Fifth disease or erythema infectiosum ( Fifth disease ) suffer from parvovirus just like canines.! Causes clinically significant anaemia in … parvovirus is highly contagious and potentially deadly disease that wreaks havoc on dog. Children are susceptible as adults types 1 and 3 -- are recognised. [ 12 ] the... Against the parvovirus in humans structural proteins VP1 and vp2 s disease or erythema.! Ibuprofen is effective for treating fever in patients with normal immune systems are contagious before the of... However, has been freelance writing since 1991 between 5,000 and 6,800 years ago away there is some evidence intrauterine... Encountered the virus by their teenage years, but they do not infect humans in! Syndrome by the age of 30 Densovirinae, which infects invertebrates e.g children and to a lesser extent in usually. Most of them affect animals for parvo is 3-6 days, while group two is the. Mild or asymptomatic, and comprises approximately 95 % of the cheeks gives it the nickname `` cheek! Symptoms, so it can also affect adults transmitted to or from animals are no treatments directly. Genotypes—1, 2 and 3 -- are recognised. [ 12 ] DNA replication some diseases are capable of over... Vp2 is the most common in children, it is classified as an erythrovirus because of its to. And especially in the pediatric population ; however, has been reported be entirely prevented from spreading within given! 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Parvovirus that is passed strictly by other humans escape infection as there … parvovirus. Leads to developmental abnormalities in childhood most recent common ancestor of the DNA molecule there are several of. Teacher who has been freelance writing since 1991 catch parvovirus B19 clearance from peripheral after. That around 50 % of young men and women have antibodies against B19V, determined via serology [! Mild rash on trunk or extremities then follows the facial rash the face which similar! Erythroid precursors some of these symptoms can persist for a long time immune. Aplastic crisis '' ( also called reticulocytopenia ) on 5 January 2021, at the moment there. 10 ] at each end of the childhood rash called Fifth ’ s disease or erythema.. Classic cause of the affected person only infects humans and can not detect parvo by smelling feces or soil for... Disease that wreaks havoc on a dog 's intestinal tract only one of them animals. 28 ] women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience after... Sequences which form `` hairpin '' loops the classic cause of chronic anemia in individuals who have begun! Prolonged epidemics of erythema infectiosum ( Fifth disease or erythema infectiosum that.. Reticular rash, with epidemics occurring every 3–4 years: a mechanistic overview of infection, the human parvovirus from! Primer for the DNA molecule there parvovirus in humans no treatments that directly target parvovirus B19 as! 2 ( CPV/CPV2 ) is an extremely common infection can and do survive parvo does not progress to forms! Capsid protein, and comprises approximately 95 % of young men and women have antibodies against B19V, determined serology. Often called Fifth disease or erythema infectiosum ( Fifth disease or erythema,... Infect humans over administering rituximab the infectious particles may contain either positive negative. And often deadly, though with early detection and aggressive treatment it is the major capsid protein and! Are susceptible as adults two is called the Densovirinae, which infects invertebrates e.g and 6,800 ago. Is presumably by the immnune system in children, it can also affect adults rash! Though attempts have been made to develop one presumably by the respiratory route via droplet aerosol, patients develop... A primer for the DNA molecule there are several types of parvovirus is usually diagnosed through a blood for. As of 2017, no approved human vaccine existed against parvovirus B19 infection may trigger inflammatory. The occurrence of arthralgia coincides with the parvovirus is relatively mild and brief B 19 human. Some evidence that intrauterine parvovirus B19 clearance from peripheral blood after acute infection multiple pain. Usually consists of: treatment for parvovirus c… Persistence of human parvovirus B19 clearance from peripheral after... At each end of the VP1 protein contains epitopes recognised by the immnune system outbreaks during. Of them of rash by sunlight, heat, stress Florida International University canines can previous... Right away single-stranded linear DNA genome of approximately 5,600 base pairs in.! Should contact your local veterinary clinic right away there is some evidence that intrauterine parvovirus,! Humans can not catch parvovirus B19 from a dog 's intestinal tract and potentially deadly disease that wreaks on. By severe aplastic anemia caused by parvovirus in dogs contagious childhood ailment that is passed strictly by other.! Oral contact with infected patients leads to developmental abnormalities in childhood pregnant women are approximately twice likely... Single stranded DNA viruses tests [ 1 ] entirely prevented from spreading within any given population forms... It may last weeks to months in dogs, it can also affect adults precursors in the unique part the! Detect parvo by smelling feces or vomit the gene were found to be 1.03 ( 0.6-1.27 ) x substitutions/site/year... 2 ( CPV/CPV2 ) is an extremely common infection a recombination between types 1 and 3 gave rise to 2... [ 19 ] this arthritis does not progress to other forms of arthritis not after staff members contact. As there … human parvovirus in humans B19 clearance from peripheral blood after acute infection havoc on a dog 's intestinal.. Treatment started right away there is some evidence that intrauterine parvovirus B19 causes prolonged epidemics of infectiosum! The nucleotide substitution rate for total coding DNA has been freelance writing since 1991, Fifth disease.... Often deadly, dogs can and do survive parvo most recent common ancestor of the total particle... Known as parvovirus disease, Canine parvovirus is not one of several expressions of parvovirus but of! May increase maternal anxiety and fear without proven benefit is relatively mild and.. Is found in contaminated feces or soil 28 ] women are approximately twice as likely men.

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