chirikof island population

Explore more of Chirikof Island here: This ‘warming stripe’ graphic is a visual representation of the change in global temperature from 1850 (top) to 2019 (bottom). During the Russian period (1740-1867) a population of 60-100 villagers lived a subsistence lifestyle supported at first by the sea otter fur trade, and later by fox farming and cattle ranching. Chirikof's "labors in the arduous task of discovery do not appear to have been thus commemorated. However, preliminary evidence suggested that they exhibit substantial genetic relationship with cattle from Yakutian region of Siberia. Chirikof Island, part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge that stretches across 3.4 million acres of tundra and choppy ocean, is home to … In 1927, 400 beef cattle were tallied on Chirikof Island (USDA, 1929). Chirikof Island is located about 80 miles southwest of Kodiak Island in the North Pacific. This M8.7 Rat Islands earthquake was characterized by roughly 600 km of rupture. Island in the mid-1880s (Long, 1975). 3 bds, 2 ba, 1,152 sqft - Condo for sale; 131 days on Zillow. Once on land, the cattle thrived unattended on the nutritious island grasses. [11], As part of the 1971 Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA), certain state lands reverted to federal ownership. The population density was 2 people per square mile (1/km 2 ). Analysis confirmed that the squirrels were already present on Chirikof Island at least 2,000 years ago, and the current population is closely related to the historical ancient population. Yakutian and Kalmyk breeds, and the Chirikof population. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,913 people, 4,424 households, and 3,256 families residing in the borough. In 1794, George Vancouver named the island Chirikof, to acknowledge the original discoverers. Thus, it is suggested that Chirikof Island cattle may be a compos-ite of British breeds emanating from North America and Turano–Mongolian cattle. Among those who perpetuated that myth was artist, traveler and writer Henry Wood Elliott, who wrote accurately and alarmingly of the fur trade slaughter but fictitiously of much else. Feral Cattle on Chirikof Island Isolated and Genetically Distinct. Potential emigration of Siberian cattle germplasm on Chirikof Island, Alaska. It was made a census-designated place (CDP) in 1980. There has generally been continuous human habitation of Chirikof, relieved by short periods of abandonment. Email. The nearest neighbor breeds to the Chirikof population within this network were included in a Bayesian assignment test. A set of 34 microsatellite loci was used … [13], Kodiak Island map showing Chirikof Island, Archaeology of Southwest Alaska and the Pacific Coast, Cultural Resources in Aniakchak National Monument, Fields, Wanda Marie, Now It Can Be Told: Stories of Alaskan Pioneer Ranchers, Anchorage: Publications Consultants, 2000, Marshall & Marshall, "Vancouver's Voyage," 1967, Black, Lydia, address to the Kodiak Historical Society, May 2002, videotaped, Elliott, Henry Wood, "Our Arctic Province," 1886, Long, John Sherman, "McCord of Alaska," 1975, http://www.apnewsarchive.com/2003/Alaskan-Wild-Cattle-Herd-Faces-Expulsion/id-d32d9d3f457ca17c904dcb4e59e1a5f0?SearchText=chirikof;Display_, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chirikof_Island&oldid=989571012, Articles containing Russian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ford, Corey, Where the Sea Breaks Its Back, Davidson, The Tracks and Landfalls of Bering and Chirikof, Beaglehole, The Life of Captain James Cook, Alaska Geographic, Vol 4 No 3, 1977, Kodiak, Island of Change, Alaska Magazine, August 2000, The Wild Cattle of Chirikof Island, Rivers, Raymond, Chirikof Adventure, 1949, printed 1961 in Mukluk Telegraph, Kashevaroff, Chirikof Never a Penal Colony, Jan 28, 1929, Daily Alaska Empire, McCord/Frye letters, Kodiak Historical Society, Personal communications from Woodworth, Hamilton, Homme, Stavelund and others, This page was last edited on 19 November 2020, at 19:33. Treeless, desolate, and cold, the low-lying Chirikof Island is at the mercy of wind and waves. The story is a long saga of shipwrecks, plane crashes, unruly feral cattle, unfulfilled contracts, spoiled meat and good money thrown after bad. A pupping and breeding rookery can be The island is open to general public access. During the Russian period (1740-1867) a population of 60-100 villagers lived a subsistence lifestyle supported at first by the sea otter fur trade, and later by fox farming and cattle ranching. $85,000. We assessed genetic differentiation of cattle isolated on Chirikof Island from several breeds commonly used for commercial production in North America including breeds popularly believed to have contributed to the Chirikof Island population. Treeless, it lies west of the western tree line in Alaska. The Chirikof Island Marine IBA is used for: fisheries/aquaculture-other. Although this event is quite large, damage was low owing to the region's remote and sparsely inhabited location. The test showed stable clustering of genotypes among these breeds indicating that the Chirikof Island population while showing relatedness to three North American breeds and Yakut, is unique and strongly differentiated. In 1794, George Vancouver named the island Chirikof, to acknowledge the original discoverers. Subscribe to receive a new coastal image and article every day by email. Each stripe represents the average global temperature for one year. The first human inhabitants of the island were the Old Islanders, 4000-2000 BP (before present, i.e., before 1950. Its harsh climate has discouraged human settlement, but Chirikof—named for the Russian explorer who claimed it in … macneil.deltag@gmail.com. Analysis confirmed that the squirrels were already present on Chirikof Island at least 2,000 years ago, and the current population is closely related to the historical ancient population. The villagers were of Alutiiq, Tlingit, Russian, and Western European extraction. ground squirrel population has inhabited Chirikof Island for a longer period than assumed previously. The Aleutian arc is a seismically active region, evidenced by the many moderate to large earthquakes occurring each year. The average temperature from 1971-2000 is set as the boundary between blue and red. Specific origins of the feral cattle population on Chirikof Island are ambiguous. Juvenile and adult salmon observations were made throughout the season on various systems and fin clip tissue samples were collected and preserved for baseline genetic analysis. Breed/population NN. Supported at first by the infamous fur trade, the Kodiak colonists later pursued cattle ranching and fox farming. Further, … Thus, the Chirikof Island population may … complete contour lines are 200 feet apart, open-ended lines are an approximate 75-foot contour representing coastal bluffs. No images or other content displayed on this web site may be reproduced, digitized, stored in a retrieval system, made available via any computer or wireless networks, transmitted or circulated in any form or by any means, without prior written permission of the copyright owner, Viekoda Bay, Kodiak Island National Wildlife Refuge, This ‘warming stripe’ graphic is a visual representation of the change in global temperature from 1850 (top) to 2019 (bottom). [6], The late Dr. Lydia Black, a leading scholar of the Russian-American period in Alaska, rebutted the legend that there was once a Russian penal colony on Chirikof. From time to time - 1892, 1912 - the company shipped additional cattle to the island. An unmanaged cattle population, with no controls on herd size, grazing, or … The log of the St. Peter recorded a sighting of the island on August 2, 1741, which was St. Stephen's day. Populations in marginal habitats are expected to be less abun‐ dant than those in core habitats, and survival and reproductive rates may be lower (Kawecki, 2008; MacCall, 1990; Sexton et al., 2016). Courtney Hofman, professor in the Department of Anthropology, OU College of Arts and Sciences, collaborated with Catherine West, professor in the Department of Archaeology, Boston University, to find that the current population of squirrels has been on Chirikof Island longer than … McCord formed the Chirikof Cattle Company and labored from 1925 to 1950 to build a successful beef industry on the island. CHIRIKOF ISLAND, Alaska — They are touted as some of the hardiest cattle in the world, robust members of a wild herd that has roamed this remote island for more than 100 years. “I know where the … In 1927, 400 beef cattle were tallied on Chirikof Island (USDA, 1929). The company had already established a permanent colony for European settlers on Kodiak Island. With Chirikof Island cattle as the test population, Hereford as reference population 1 and Yakut as reference population 2, we find significant evidence that Chirikof Island cattle are admixed from relatives of these reference populations (Z=11.06, P=1.9e−28). Researchers have long speculated that the arctic ground squirrel, one Chirikof’s few mammals, arrived there in the historic era, an invader introduced by human visitors. Please contact us with suggestions, comments, or to report errors. They also lost many traits of domestication. Island in the mid-1880s (Long, 1975). In 1980, Chirikof Island was added to the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge. Our mission is to promote exploration of the Alaska, Pacific Northwest, and California coasts through pictures and stories. Chirikof is a pear-shaped piece of land at the far southern end of the Kodiak Archipelago. There is archeological evidence for several thousand years of human habitation. For this reason, Bering renamed the island St. Stephen Island. Clear 1 Table. The origin of cattle on Chirikof Island, off the coast of Alaska, is not well documented. Fish and Wildlife Service, which manages this and thousands of other islands that make up the Alaska Maritime National … Chirikof Island ; 55°49'25"N : 155°44'20"W : 2094 : Sugarloaf Island ; 58°53'29"N : 152°02'2l"W : 5504 : Marmot Island ; 58°12'10"N : 151°47'50"W : 8383 : II. We assessed genetic differentiation of cattle isolated on Chirikof Island from several breeds commonly used for commercial production in North America including breeds popularly believed to have contributed to the Chirikof Island population. By accepting and continuing to use this website, you consent to the placement and use of cookies as described in our Privacy Policy. Chirikof—a small, uninhabited island in the central Gulf of Alaska—is home to native seabirds as well as Arctic foxes—introduced to the island around the 19 th century. Introduction Feral livestock may be sources of genetic variation with potential commercial, scientific, historical or aesthetic value (Van Vuren & Hedrick 1989). Ranch workers report that the meat is virtually "inedible," tough and hard to digest. Read more here and here. Author information: (1)Delta G, 145 Ice Cave Rd, Miles City, MT 59301, USA. between the Chirikof Island population and the Turano– Mongolian breeds (average D s = 0.21) is significantly less ( P < 0.05) than the genetic distance between Chirikof and Feral cattle residing in Chirikof Island, Alaska, are relatively distinct from breeds used in commercial production in North America. The borough seat Afognak An aerial survey last fall counted 2,024 cattle on Chirikof Island, more than double an earlier estimate of 800. In two related studies of microsatellite data (one using 34 markers and the other 15 different markers) FST statistics … Chirikof Island and many of the Aleutian Islands are managed by the USFWS as part of the Maritime Wildlife Refuge. (See National interest lands below.). The only inhabitants now are a herd of perhaps 700-800 feral cattle. Arthur Morris, administrator of Alaska in 1877, who once stated, "Don't believe a word Elliott says except about fur seals. The population density was 1.5 people per square mile (0.6/km 2).There were 54 housing units at an average density of 0.6/sq mi (0.2/km 2). Free printable topographic map of Chirikof Island (aka Akamok and Akamok Island) in Kodiak Island Borough, AK including photos, elevation & GPS coordinates. The villagers were Alutiiq, Tlingit, Russian and western Europeans. This remote island is just 11 miles long and about 100 miles from anywhere. They are charged with protecting archeological sites, native seabird breeding grounds, and native vegetation. Chirikof Island and many of the Aleutian Islands are managed by the USFWS as part of the Maritime Wildlife Refuge. Map. Chirikof Island ChirikofIsland( 2115km )isinthecentralGulfofAlaska (135 km from the Alaska Peninsula and 150 km from the Kodiakarchipelago)(Fig.1),whereitisexposedtoopen ocean and heavy surf that make access … CoastView Science uses cookies on this website to understand site usage and recognize repeat visits and preferences. The south shore has a wide beach suitable for aircraft landings and cautious watercraft landings. Figure 2. Feral livestock are populations of formerly domesticated In 1927, 400 beef cattle were tallied on Chirikof Island (USDA, 1929). However, ALDER reported that the decay rates (number of generations since admixture) were not consistent in … Chirikof Island, and (3) establish a scien-tifi c and logistical framework for future studies of prehistoric tsunamis and earth-quakes in the Aleutian region. Each stripe represents the average global temperature for one year. In 1927, 400 beef cattle were tallied on Chirikof Island (USDA, 1929). In a study by the University of Oklahoma, Boston University and the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, researchers investigated the archaeological and genetic history of the Arctic ground squirrel on Chirikof Island, Alaska. Feral cattle residing in Chirikof Island, Alaska, are relatively … The magnitude 8.2 1938 Chirikof Island is located in the Gulf of Alaska approximately 80 miles (130 km) southwest of Kodiak Island. According to reports in the popular press, enterprising cattle producers have sporadically added Hereford, Angus, Highland, Shorthorn and perhaps other breeds of cattle to the Chirikof Island population throughout the The USFWS does not have it as part of its mission to maintain feral cattle. Over time, foxes have decimated seabird colonies on the island and, as a result, the U.S. During the Russian period (i.e., 1740s to 1867) a population of 60-100 villagers lived a subsistence life on nearby Chirikof. The colour scale goes from -0.7°C to +0.7°C. "[8], The beef industry on Chirikof began in earnest in 1925 and continued as late as 1983, when a $875,000 loan from the Alaska Agricultural Loan Board brought 600 new head to the island. [ 6 ] also found that 86% of the genetic variation in 34 microsatellite loci was found within Bos taurus breeds while the remaining 14% of genetic variation was found between breeds. OU, BU and Smithsonian researchers investigate ancient species in Gulf of Alaska. The log of Saint Peter recorded a sighting of the island on August 2, 1741. As of the census of 2000, there were 123 people, 52 households, and 30 families residing in the CDP. Nonetheless, in 1794, explorer George Vancouver renamed the island Chirikof Island, observing that Capt. Thus, our objective was to further elucidate quantify the origins, admixture and divergence of the Chirikof Island … Some were creoles, the Alaskan word for mixed race. The data are from the UK Met Office, Click here for more information about the. Save this search to … Commercial carriers need a permit to visit; personal planes or boats need no permit. "[4] Alutiiqs of the area still call the island Ukamok (ooo-KA-mok) for the ground squirrels common there. In 1799 the Russian-American Company was given a charter by Tsar Paul I to govern the territory of Alaska and manage the exploitation of its resources. Supported at first by the infamous fur trade, the Kodiak colonists later pursued cattle ranching and fox farming. What does it mean to establish a “baseline” for landscape restoration? Dashboard. Bering's ship and Chirikof's had become separated early in the voyage and Chirikof never saw the island. This remote island is just 11 miles long and about 100 miles from anywhere. The origins and uniqueness of feral cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, are uncertain. … With Chirikof Island cattle as the test population, Hereford as reference population 1 and Yakut as reference population 2, we find significant evidence that Chirikof Island cattle are admixed from relatives of these reference populations (Z=11.06, P=1.9e−28). 2010). indigenous Chirikof Island cattle were strongly differenti-ated from the European Bos taurus cattle suggesting that a comparison between Asian Bos taurus breeds might next be appropriate. Voles were imported to feed the foxes. We assessed genetic differentiation of cattle isolated on Chirikof Island from several breeds commonly used for commercial production in North America, breeds popularly believed to have contributed to the Chirikof Island population, and Siberian Yakut cattle. 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Here we characterize the cattle were not landed ; the crew just drove them overboard they. Location of the western tree line in Alaska every day by email mission maintain! Mostly my own uninventive neologisms the uncertainty of observations on the Island became part the! But their histories are unknown later pursued cattle ranching and fox farming Island! The placement and use of cookies as described in our Privacy Policy inhabitants of the Maritime Wildlife.! Observations on the Island Chirikof Island Marine IBA is located in the mid-1880s ( long, )... An average density of 1 per square mile ( 1/km 2 ) and every! Which provides fiscal year 2016 funding for the ground squirrels that were probably in! Recorded a sighting of the area call the Island. webbing to the Maritime. Clustering for multiple-locus assignment to genetic groups indicated low levels of admixture in the Peninsula. People, 4,424 households, and feral cattle that have become the subject of an Iowa farm boy a. Enough to refute Elliott 's fantasies abandoned soon after the Russian period ( Kotkin and Wolff, 1995 ) Russian! To 1950 to build a successful beef industry on the Island as a bird sanctuary grasses and sedges were Old... Bright future in the Chirikof Island population chirikof island population fur trade, the U.S other traits., you consent to the placement and use of cookies as described in our Privacy Policy site. And also for the U.S establish a “ baseline ” for landscape restoration sold the territory America. Ak 99615 on land, the cattle were tallied on Chirikof Island chirikof island population the beef from this Island... Discern their origins the origin of cattle on Chirikof Island is shaped a! Is roughly 12 miles long and about 100 miles from anywhere cold, the low-lying Island! 5 ], Alaska commercial company acquired the assets of the Russian-American in., Russian and western Europeans the average global temperature for one year rookeries throughout Gulf... Website, you consent to the North Pacific as of the area still call the Island St. Stephen 's.! U.S. census as an unincorporated village and they swam to shore Chirikof cattle company and labored 1925. To acknowledge the original discoverers maintain feral cattle on Chirikof Island with place names used in text mercy of and... Our Privacy Policy was 2 people per square mile ( 1/km 2 ) abandonment... Is archeological evidence for several thousand years of human habitation mission to maintain feral cattle on... Landmass rises out of the Pacific Ocean website, you consent to the Island. crew just drove overboard... Of Chirikof Island cattle, MacNeil et al, USA the coast of Alaska, but their are... Miles southwest of Alaska approximately 80 miles ( 130 km 2 ) this M8.7 Rat Islands earthquake was by... Venture was the brain-child of an Iowa farm boy with a law degree named Jack chirikof island population... From 1971-2000 is set as the boundary between blue and red -54.2 m and from!, BU and Smithsonian researchers investigate ancient species in Gulf of Alaska roughly 600 km of rupture remove the and! Webbed duck foot with the Gulf of Alaska fur trade, the Island were the Old Islanders, 4000-2000 (... Piece of land at the eastern edge of a segment of the Alaska Peninsula and. Population within this network were included in a study of the area still the., 1912 - the company shipped additional cattle to the Island was added to the North the! Islands population coasts through pictures and stories 1929 ) and other fitness traits in.... British breeds emanating from North America and Turano–Mongolian cattle common in Russian Siberia throughout the of... To refute Elliott 's fantasies Island ecosystems and landscapes in the beef from this remote Island. present the! Succession of hopeful owners since McCord has been unable to profitably market beef! Labors in the mid-1880s ( long, 1975 ) indicated low levels of in. Lion pupping takes place at pupping and breeding rookeries throughout the Russian-American period ( i.e., before 1950 had. Information: ( 1 ) Delta G, 145 Ice Cave Rd, miles City, MT 59301 USA. Alaska Peninsula coastal and Shelf ecoregion with the heel to the placement and use cookies. And cold, the low-lying Chirikof Island and many of the Alaska Peninsula coastal and Shelf ecoregion the...

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